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Beefy Zap Audit

Table of Contents


From 2023-06-05
To 2023-06-08
Total Issues
12 (12 resolved)
Critical Severity Issues
1 (1 resolved)
High Severity Issues
1 (1 resolved)
Medium Severity Issues
0 (0 resolved)
Low Severity Issues
4 (4 resolved)
Notes & Additional Information
6 (6 resolved)


We audited the beefy-zap repository at the addd5741a520b10924f1f26cc45208ff5fa88139 commit.

In scope were the following contracts:

├── interfaces
│   ├── IBeefyTokenManager.sol
│   ├── IBeefyZapRouter.sol
│   └── IPermit2.sol
└── zaps
    ├── BeefyTokenManager.sol
    └── BeefyZapRouter.sol
    └── ZapErrors.sol

System Overview

BeefyZapRouter serves as a versatile intermediary designed to execute users' orders through routes supplied by the users or by a third party. The user has the option to independently execute an order by either selecting the desired route or alternatively signing a permit with Permit2 which enables third parties to carry out the order on their behalf.

User Order Execution

In order to execute the order independently, the user is required to approve the BeefyTokenManager contract as a spender of the desired input tokens. The user can then proceed to execute the order through the BeefyZapRouter contract. This contract will retrieve the user's tokens via the BeefyTokenManager and carry out the order based on the provided route.

Third-Party Order Execution

The protocol enables users to delegate the execution of orders to third parties by leveraging the Permit2 protocol for managing user approvals. To enable the execution of orders on behalf of users, it is necessary for them to approve spending by the Permit2contract. They can then sign an order including the input and minimum output token amounts, which allows any third party to execute it by supplying a route.

Security Model & Trust Assumptions

BeefyZapRouter heavily relies on Permit2 to allow users to interact with the protocol via off-chain signed orders. The Permit2 contract is trusted to behave according to its specification.

Privileged Roles

The owner of the BeefyZapRouter can pause and unpause the contract which will prevent it from executing users' orders.

Client-Reported Issue

Calldata With Multiple Balances Is Overwritten

The for loop within _executeSteps iterates over the step tokens and dynamically patches the data with the current balance of the given token. The loop is expected to handle, and patch, multiple places with balances of multiple tokens. However, the current implementation is not working on the already processed calldata. Instead, it is overwriting its value with the new patch.

The overwriting of calldata may lead to the deletion of balances when handling multiple input tokens per step. This could trigger reverts in order executions due to slippage checks. In rare cases where outputs pass the slippage check despite the omission of an input amount, excess tokens meant for the executor might be retained in the contract.

The Beefy team proposed to write in the same calldata instead of overwriting its value.

Update: Resolved at commit bb1480b.


Critical Severity

External Call to Permit2 Allows Stealing Users' Tokens

During an order execution, it is possible to make arbitrary external calls to any stepTarget except the token manager. A vulnerability arises when setting stepTarget equal to the Permit2 address, which allows an attacker to make a call from the router to Permit2 using a valid order/signature pair from another benign user.

This results in the transfer of all tokens from the benign user to the router during the attacker's order execution, enabling them to steal all the tokens from the order.

Consider disallowing any external calls to Permit2 in both steps and relaying executions.

Update: Resolved in pull request #6 at commit 6ba7a7e. External calls to the Permit2 contract have been prohibited.

High Severity

Denial-of-Service of Router Functionality

The _approveToken function of the BeefyZapRouter contract is responsible for approving each stepTarget to spend an unlimited amount of tokens. The function checks if the allowance is lower than the requested amount, and in that case it sets the approval to the maximum value.

However, when approving non-zero amounts, safeApprove (which is used in this function) requires the current allowance to be equal to zero.

This requirement can be manipulated by making use of external calls in stages or relays. These calls can directly communicate with one of the accepted tokens, setting a low allowance for the exchange. Consequently, this causes future attempts to utilize the token on the targeted exchange to revert.

Consider replacing the usage of safeApprove with the newer forceApprove function from the OpenZeppelin library.

Update: Resolved in pull request #7 at commit 76fd619. The usage of safeApprove in _approveToken has been replaced with the new forceApprove function.

Low Severity

Floating Pragma

Throughout the codebase, the version of Solidity used is ^0.8.0. This version indicates that any compiler version after 0.8.0 can be used to compile the source code. However, the code will not compile when using version 0.8.3 or earlier since there are functions that use custom errors that were introduced in Solidity 0.8.4.

Consider upgrading all contracts to Solidity version 0.8.4 at a minimum, but ideally to the latest version. This precautionary measure also helps prevent the accidental deployment of contracts with outdated compiler versions that could potentially introduce vulnerabilities.

Update: Resolved in pull request #8 at commit 71c3eee. The Solidity version has been locked to 0.8.19.

Missing Docstrings

Throughout the codebase, there are several parts that do not have docstrings. For instance:

When writing docstrings, consider following the Ethereum Natural Specification Format (NatSpec).

Update: Resolved in pull request #9 at commit 132902c. The docstrings have been added to all contracts and interfaces.

Witness Type String Does Not Follow EIP-712

The BeefyZapRouter contract does not implement EIP-712 correctly for Permit2’s permitWitnessTransferFrom functionality. The witness string used by the BeefyZapRouter does not follow Uniswap's guidance on integrating with Permit2 and results in an incorrect EIP-712 type string being created.

This string is missing the declaration of Order order inside PermitBatchWitnessTransferFrom after the deadline parameter. In addition, there is no definition of the TokenPermissions object.

Consider updating the ORDER_STRING value to include the Order order parameter and the TokenPermissions object.

Update: Resolved in pull request #10 at commit e2aad12.

Missing Order Typehash Prefix for Witness Parameter

The witness parameter used by BeefyZapRouter does not follow Uniswap's guidance on integrating with Permit2 and is calculated only out of Order data, instead of prefixing the data with the Order typehash.

Consider prefixing Order data with the typehash before executing the keccak256 function.

Update: Resolved in pull request #11 at commit 0bcdf0c. The Order typehash has been added to the witness parameter.

Notes & Additional Information

Styling Suggestions

In the IBeefyZapRouter.sol contract, external files are imported before declaring the Solidity compiler version.

Consider declaring the Solidity version first to comply with the Solidity style guide.

Update: Resolved in pull request #12 at commit 0a5fc06. The order of the layout has been changed by declaring the Solidity version first and then importing external files.

Missing Custom Errors

The BeefyTokenManager contract is using a require statement to validate the caller of the pullTokens function. Since solidity version 0.8.4, custom errors provide a cleaner and more cost-efficient way to explain to users why an operation failed.

To improve the clarity of the codebase and save gas, consider replacing the error string with a custom error.

Update: Resolved in pull request #13 at commit 059af74. The require statement in the pullTokens function has been replaced with the custom error CallerNotZap.

Typographical Errors

Throughout the codebase, the following typographical errors have been identified:

  • Line 16: "TokenManger" should be "TokenManager".
  • Line 147: "appoved" should be "approved".

Consider fixing these typographical errors to improve the readability of the codebase.

Update: Resolved in pull request #14 at commit 233fb84.

Unused Import

In IBeefyZapRouter.sol, the import IBeefyTokenManager is unused and could be removed.

Consider removing unused imports to improve the overall clarity and readability of the codebase.

Update: Resolved in pull request #15 at commit 606ea46. The unused IBeefyTokenManager import has been moved from the IBeefyZapRouter interface to the BeefyZapRouter contract.

Non-Explicit Imports Are Used

The use of non-explicit imports in the codebase can decrease the clarity of the code, and may create naming conflicts between locally defined and imported variables. This is particularly relevant when multiple contracts exist within the same Solidity files or when inheritance chains are long.

Throughout the codebase, global imports are being used. For instance:

Following the principle that clearer code is better code, consider using named import syntax (import {A, B, C} from "X") to explicitly declare the imported contracts.

Update: Resolved in pull request #16 at commit 151dd3d.

Interface Mismatch

Consider matching the BeefyZapRouter contract implementation by correctly marking the following functions as view in the IBeefyZapRouter interface:

Update: Resolved in pull request #17 at commit c5ddf8c.



One critical and one high-severity issues were discovered among various lower-severity issues. Communication with the team was smooth as they openly expressed their considerations regarding the design. Furthermore, they promptly initiated the implementation of suggested solutions to address the vulnerabilities that were disclosed early on during the audit.

Regarding the future integration of the router with the broader protocol, its definitive impact on the system's security will necessitate careful review upon completion. Since calling the router from another contract introduces arbitrary external calls, examining the router alone cannot guarantee protection against a potential attack on another contract that calls it.


Monitoring Recommendations

While the audit helps identify code-level issues in the current implementation, the Beefy team is encouraged to incorporate monitoring activities for deployed contracts. Specifically, it is recommended to monitor the TokenReturned event and ensure that the amounts of returned tokens are equal to or greater than the minimum outputs expected in the signed orders.