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Compound Comprehensive Protocol Audit

Delivered to Compound on March 4th, 2022. Fix updates will be added to this document periodically.

Table of Contents


The Compound community recently voted to approve a long-term security partnership with OpenZeppelin, conducting audits over select Compound governance proposals along with advisory services and monitoring solutions.

The proposal that OpenZeppelin laid out begins with an initial comprehensive audit of the current state of the protocol’s codebase and its primary components. Additionally, the Equilibria team recently submitted a proposal to refactor the CToken contract code, one of the main components of the protocol. This refactor was included in the comprehensive audit scope, and the findings are present in this report.

In the following sections, we give an overall summary of how the protocol works and files in scope. We would also encourage the reader to go over previous Compound audits, including past OpenZeppelin reports to learn more about how the protocol has evolved over time.

Type: DeFi Lending & Governance

Timeline: 2022-01-24 to 2022-03-04

Languages: Solidity

Total Issues Found: 30

Critical Severity Issues: 1 (already resolved)

High Severity Issues: 0

Medium Severity Issues: 0

Low Severity Issues: 10

Notes & Additional Information: 19


Several parts of the currently deployed codebase have repeated contracts, which slightly differ between one another. Here we present the list of all the files in scope, including repetitions:

├── Comptroller
│   ├── CarefulMath.sol
│   ├── Comp.sol
│   ├── Comptroller.sol
│   ├── ComptrollerInterface.sol
│   ├── ComptrollerStorage.sol
│   ├── CToken.sol
│   ├── CTokenInterfaces.sol
│   ├── EIP20Interface.sol
│   ├── EIP20NonStandardInterface.sol
│   ├── ErrorReporter.sol
│   ├── Exponential.sol
│   ├── ExponentialNoError.sol
│   ├── InterestRateModel.sol
│   ├── PriceOracle.sol
│   └── Unitroller.sol
├── CToken-Refactor by Equilibria
│   ├── CErc20.sol
│   ├── CErc20Delegate.sol
│   ├── CEther.sol
│   ├── ComptrollerInterface.sol
│   ├── CToken.sol
│   ├── CTokenInterfaces.sol
│   ├── EIP20Interface.sol
│   ├── EIP20NonStandardInterface.sol
│   ├── ErrorReporter.sol
│   ├── ExponentialNoError.sol
│   └── InterestRateModel.sol
├── GovernorBravoDelegate
│   ├── GovernorBravoDelegate.sol
│   └── GovernorBravoInterfaces.sol
├── GovernorBravoDelegator.sol
│   ├── GovernorBravoDelegator.sol
│   ├── GovernorBravoDelegatorStorage.sol
│   └── GovernorBravoEvents.sol
├── Unitroller
│   ├── ComptrollerErrorReporter.sol
│   └── Unitroller.sol

Overall Health

Our findings suggest that the protocol is robust in general as we did not detect any high severity issues, and the one critical issue detected has already been fixed. The codebase lacks order and clarity across various updates. The reported issues address this problem on a very low level, so we encourage the community to use our recommendations for starting a conversation on how to address codebase clarity for future development. We would also encourage the Compound Labs team to consider addressing our recommendations in future versions of the protocol being planned.

System Overview

The audited system is composed of three main parts:

  • The Comptroller and Unitroller
  • The Governance module (GovernorBravo, Comp token, and Timelock)
  • The CToken and other CToken-related contracts such as CErc20 and CEth

Unitroller and Comptroller

The Comptroller holds the implementation logic of the Unitroller contract. The Unitroller contract is the proxy and storage layer of the Comptroller implementation.

The Unitroller contract inherits from the UnitrollerAdminStorage contract, which defines four variables of the proxy:

  • admin: The admin of the proxy, which can modify the comptroller implementation address. This is set in the constructor as the msg.sender.
  • pendingAdmin: The admin of the Unitroller can be updated in two steps through the restricted _setPendingAdmin and _acceptAdmin functions. In the first step, the pendingAdmin address is set by the current admin through the _setPendingAdmin function, and is then accepted by the pending admin itself through the _acceptAdmin function.
  • comptrollerImplementation: The address of the current Comptroller implementation.
  • pendingComptrollerImplementation: As for the admin address, the implementation address is also updated in two steps through the _setPendingImplementation and _acceptImplementation functions. The former is called by the admin directly in the Unitroller and the latter by the admin through the old implementation as detailed below in the upgrade process section.

To avoid storage collisions, the Comptroller storage layout is defined through a series of incremental contracts that extend from the previous ones (namely ComptrollerV1Storage, ComptrollerV2Storage, etc.). In this way, variable and type declarations never change in order, and new variables are always added in new slots. For this reason, the Comptroller storage layout starts with the same variables as the Unitroller (ComptrollerV1Storage extends from UnitrollerAdminStorage), ensuring no collisions occur when calling the base implementation from the proxy. Moreover, all Unitroller functions return either 0, in the case of correct execution, or other numbers according to the ComptrollerErrorReporter library.

The Comptroller base implementation is deployed at 0xbafe01ff935c7305907c33bf824352ee5979b526 and the Unitroller proxy at 0x3d9819210a31b4961b30ef54be2aed79b9c9cd3b.

NOTE: The Unitroller is verified on Etherscan as one source file containing many contract definitions. But Unitroller itself only uses the UnitrollerAdminStorage and ComptrollerErrorReporter contracts. These two dependencies are also used by the Comptroller but with different versions of each.

Upgrade process

The upgrade process works as follows:

  1. The new Comptroller logic implementation is deployed at a new address.
  2. The admin of the Unitroller calls the _setPendingImplementation function in the Unitroller contract providing the new Comptroller implementation address.
  3. The admin calls the _become function in the Comptroller contract passing the Unitroller address. The Comptroller checks that the caller is the Unitroller‘s admin and calls the _acceptImplementation function in the Unitroller contract, which sets the new implementation address, finishing the upgrade process.

GovernorBravoDelegator and GovernorBravoDelegate

The GovernorBravoDelegate holds, similarly to the Comptroller contract, the implementation logic of the Governance module. The proxy, in this case, is the GovernorBravoDelegator contract.

The GovernorBravoDelegate base implementation is deployed at 0x563a63d650a5d259abae9248dddc6867813d3f87, and the GovernorBravoDelegator proxy is deployed at 0xc0da02939e1441f497fd74f78ce7decb17b66529.

Other relevant modules of the governance system are the COMP token contract, which is used for the protocol rewards and voting mechanism, and the Timelock contract used to queue proposals to be executed. The Timelock contract was left out of scope for the current audit as it was covered in a prior OpenZeppelin audit.

Upgrade process

The upgrade process for the governance module works as follows:

  1. The new GovernorBravoDelegate contract is deployed.
  2. The admin of the GovernorBravoDelegator calls the _setImplementation function on the GovernorBravoDelegator contract
  3. The admin calls either the delegateTo function or the fallback function in the GovernorBravoDelegator contract, delegating a call to the initialize function of the new GovernorBravoDelegate contract.
  4. The admin calls the _initiate function, through the proxy and with a delegate call, on the implementation contract, passing the old implementation address for continuous ID count.


The CErc20Delegate contract extends from the CToken contract. The CErc20Delegate contract is the base implementation contract for each existing cToken.

We audited a new version of the CToken implementation deployed at 0xfcb924ae46c7ddc6ad4f873a59ad6f3b5a2e20d5

Upgrade process

The upgrade mechanism of cTokens is out of scope. However, it works similarly to the governance module upgrade process described above.

As of today, there are no existing cTokens that use the new base implementation.

Privileged Roles

From now on, we refer to the Timelock contract as the admin.

In the Comptroller, the admin can:

Moreover, there is a pauseGuardian role which is set by admin that can:

  • Set borrowGuardianPaused for a specific market.
  • Set mintGuardianPaused for a specific market.
  • Pause transfer by flagging transferGuardianPaused globally.
  • Pause seizing by flagging seizeGuardianPaused globally.

Finally, there is a borrowCapGuardian that can set specific borrow caps for a list of markets and is also set by the admin.

Regarding the governance module, the admin can:

Finally, regarding each CToken contract, the admin can:

External dependencies and trust assumptions

There are three main parts of the system that depend on external actors or that make trust assumptions:

  • Oracle: this is meant to retrieve prices of different assets. Well-known oracle attacks include price manipulation and denial of service attacks that make the price unavailable. One thing to note is that Compound has a fallback mechanism in place that should reduce the side effects of manipulation or unavailability. Moreover, when performing sensitive actions, the codebase checks for non-zero prices and reverts or returns early if needed. The oracle system was left out of scope for the current audit, but oracle upgrades may be reviewed in future proposal audits.
  • Assets: every cToken is coupled with an underlying asset (either Ether or an ERC20 token). Market listings for new assets are proposed by the community through governance proposals. It is very important to note that the contract code of new underlying assets may introduce vulnerabilities that could impact the entire protocol.
  • Interest rate strategy: The interest rate strategy was left out of scope for this audit. However, it makes an assumption about the number of blocks produced in a year to run calculations on interest quantities. If the protocol is to be deployed on other networks, the same assumption might not be true. Future Ethereum upgrades could also affect this assumption.


The code has been audited by three auditors over the course of 5 weeks. We present our findings in the following sections organized by severity.

Critical Severity

Anyone can steal money from other suppliers in TUSD market by creating negative interest rates

Auditor’s note:
The bug behind this issue was first privately reported by the ChainSecurity team during their audit of the CToken Refactors. The OpenZeppelin team was later provided access to ChainSecurity’s private report and took it as an input. After further exploring scenarios, OpenZeppelin not only confirmed Chainsecurity’s findings but found that other protocols could be impacted by similar integration issues with TUSD. As a result, OpenZeppelin worked with the TUSD team to fix the issue at the source.

It is important to note that this vulnerability was in code that was out of scope for this audit and would have likely gone unnoticed if not for the excellent work of the ChainSecurity team.


The exchangeRateStoredInternal function from the CToken contract calculates the exchange rate between an underlying token and its cToken as follows:


  • exchangeRate: the exchange rate between the underlying and the cToken, e.g., TUSD/cTUSD
  • totalCash: the total amount of underlying held by the cToken contract (calculated by calling underlying.balanceOf(cToken))
  • totalBorrows: the total amount of underlying borrowed
  • totalReserves: the total reserves of the market, managed by the protocol that is not intended to be borrowed
  • totalSupply: the total supply of the cToken minted to suppliers, otherwise known as liquidity providers (LPs)

The mintFresh function uses this exchange rate to calculate how many cTokens should be minted to a user that supplies underlying tokens to the market.

The CToken contract additionally defines the sweepToken function, that can be called by anyone, which moves tokens accidentally sent to the CToken contract to its admin, i.e., the Timelock. This function cannot be called for the underlying token. So, for instance, if the CDAI contract holds USDT, anyone can call the sweepToken function on the CDAI contract, sending the USDT balance to the Timelock contract. Notably, if anyone calls this function sending the DAI address as the parameter, the call will fail since the underlying cannot be moved to the Timelock

The TUSD market case

Up until recently, the TUSD token had two different entry points: the current implementation, which lives behind a proxy deployed at , and a legacy contract that forwarded calls to the current contract, writing its storage when the transfer, transferFrom, increaseApproval, decreaseApproval, and approve functions were called. This introduced an undesired behavior: anyone would be able to call the sweepToken function of the CTUSD contract sending as the parameter the legacy contract address, effectively moving all the underlying from the CTUSD contract to the Timelock.

The issue lies in the fact that the totalCash, in the numerator of the exchangeRate formula described above, can be moved to 0 by calling the sweepToken function, and given the amount of underlying that is not being used for borrows in the TUSD market (roughly 50% of the TVL), the exchange rate could be moved down by around 50%.

This means that after calling the sweep function, the following would happen:

  • The exchange rate, which tracks the borrow rate, and should always be an increasing function, will go down by ~50%
  • Any supplier that adds TUSD to the market will receive ~2x the cTUSD amount they should. (A malicious supplier could discover this bug, call the sweep function, and then immediately add liquidity)
  • Any supplier that provided liquidity to the market before the sweep and then redeems their liquidity after the sweep will receive roughly 50% less of the underlying asset than they should. This would only be possible if suppliers added liquidity at an inflated exchange rate after the sweep. Until the sweep is reversed, they will not be able to redeem any amount
  • Even if the Timelock moves the funds back to the CTUSD contract, the relationship between the cTUSD supply and underlying assets can be permanently changed due to overminted cTUSD tokens. The interest rates would then remain negative, ultimately putting the market in a loss state for previous suppliers. The degree of the negative rates would depend on the amount of cTUSD tokens minted after the sweep: The more inflated cTUSD tokens minted after the sweep, the more negative the interest rate would be

The exact amounts can be found in this spreadsheet.

On February 23rd 2022, the TUSD team disallowed forwarded calls from the legacy contract to the current contract by rejecting them from the latter, ultimately fixing the issue.

High Severity


Medium Severity


Low Severity

cEther might fail when repaying a borrow

The repayBorrow function of the CEther contract calls internally the repayBorrowInternal function and the repayBorrowFresh function of the CToken contract. The repayBorrow passes the msg.value as the repayAmount parameter.

In line 683 of the CToken contract, the repayAmountFinal is calculated as the total borrow if repayAmount equals type(uint).max. Otherwise repayAmountFinal is set to repayAmount.

Then in line 696, the doTransferIn function calls back the CEther implementation where it checks again that msg.value == repayAmountFinal.

This implies the following:
– If an amount of ether equal to type(uint).max is passed (Which is unlikely, since it represents an enormous quantity of ETH), then the repayAmountFinal which is passed in the doTransferIn function will be different from the original msg.value = repayAmount and execution will revert.
– If an amount greater than the actual borrow is passed in, then an underflow will occur in line 703, and the execution will revert.

So to pay an ETH loan in its entirety, one must pass msg.value with the exact total borrow amount. If the amount is greater, it will revert. If msg.value == uint(type).max, it will also revert but for different reasons.

Consider refactoring the code to avoid checking type(uint).max in the CETH case as this cannot be passed as msg.value. Consider requiring that repayAmount <= accountBorrowsPrev instead.

Possible function selector clashing

The upgradeability system implemented in the codebase does not manage function clashing between the proxy contract and the implementation contract.

Clashing can happen among functions with different names. Every function that is part of a contract’s public ABI is identified, at the bytecode level, by a 4-byte identifier. This identifier depends on the name and arity of the function, but since it is only 4 bytes, there is a possibility that two different functions with different names may end up having the same identifier. The Solidity compiler tracks when this happens within the same contract, but not when the collision happens across different ones, such as between a proxy and its logic contract.

Upgradeable contract instances (or proxies) work by delegating all calls to a logic contract. However, the proxies need some functions of their own, such as _setPendingImplementation(address) and _acceptImplementation() to upgrade to a new implementation. This setup means there can be a function in the proxy contract with the same 4-byte identifier as one in the implementation contract. This issue would make it impossible to access the one defined in the implementation contract, as the call will not be handled by the fallback function but by the function with that signature in the proxy contract.

Consider thoroughly testing all functions implemented in each upgradeable contract to ensure no collisions are possible. Alternatively, consider migrating to the EIP-1822: Universal Upgradeable Proxy Standard (UUPS), which, by design, does not have this problem.

Gas inefficiencies

There are many places throughout the codebase where changes can be made to improve gas consumption. For example:

Arbitrary use of different uint types can lead to unwanted effects

Numerous unsigned integer (uint) values of various sizes are used. Those less than 256-bits (uint256) are used extensively. Non-uint256 sizes are generally chosen to facilitate tight packing inside of structs to save on storage costs. However, projects must carefully weigh the realized gas savings against the additional complexity such a design decision introduces.

Since the Ethereum Virtual Machine operates on 256-bit integers, additional operations must be performed to process non-uint256 values. These additional operations increase the bytecode size of contracts and consume additional gas during execution.

In the Comp contract, for example, it was necessary to include some specific functions to manage these units safely but causing extra gas costs for the additional operations. Other than that, the variables are not properly packed in the slots of the contract, so the choice of picking these units is not justified.

The code in some loops is executed unnecessarily

In GovernorBravoDelegate, the function cancel should verify ProposalState before calling cancelTransaction on the Timelock contract to avoid unnecessary gas spending. If the proposal has not been added to the queue, it is not necessary to enter the loop to cancel the transactions, since they have not even been added to the Timelock yet.

Some variables are being unnecessarily initialized to their default value

Initializing a variable to its default value wastes gas uselessly. In the codebase, there are variables explicitly set to 0. this happens several times: – In getPriorVotes function the local variable lower. – In transferTokens function the local variable startingAllowance. – In TokenErrorReporter contract the variable NO_ERROR.

The loops of some functions are not properly optimized

In many loops in the codebase, the size of the array to iterate through is always read on each iteration. Here some examples: – getHypotheticalAccountLiquidityInternal, _addMarketInternal, fixBadAccruals and claimComp, in Comptroller. – queue, execute and cancel in GovernorBravoDelegate.

  1. if it is a storage array, this is an extra sload operation(100 additional extra gas (EIP-2929) for each iteration except for the first),
  2. if it is a memory array, this is an extra mload operation (3 additional gas for each iteration except for the first),
  3. if it is a calldata array, this is an extra calldataload operation (3 additional gas for each iteration except for the first)

These extra costs are avoidable by creating a variable with the array length (caching the array length in stack).

Arguments with read-only parameters are using memory instead of calldata

Some protocol contract functions have parameters in which they use the keyboard memory. This may not be very efficient as it performs unnecessary steps if the argument is read-only. Here some examples:

Consider using calldata instead of memory if the function argument is only read.

Storage slots read multiple times

Operations that load values onto the execution stack can be expensive. On several occasions, some variables are read multiple times and cause gas cost overruns in the execution. Here are some examples:

  • doTransferIn in the CToken contract reads three times the underlying state variable.
  • propose in the GovernorBravoDelegate contract reads three times the targets.length memory variable.
  • state in Governor Bravo Delegate, the local variable proposal is unnecessarily defined with the keyword storage, causing multiple reads from storage.
  • Line 254 of cToken contract is defining a storage variable when memory can be used instead.

To avoid this, consider only loading the variable onto the stack once and reusing it from the stack itself.

Redundant validations

The exitMarket function performs a redundant check to verify if the sender is not already ‘in’ the market. The internal function redeemAllowedInternal called by the former performs the same validation.

Consider removing the redundant validation.

Unnecessary extra steps

transferTokens has local variables and validations that are wasting gas without adding any value and reducing readability.

Consider removing intermediate variable definitions to act directly on storage variables and and synthesize the validations.

Redundant usage of the Exp type

Usage of Exp type can be avoided at lines 308-310 in favour of uint exchangeRate = cashPlusBorrowsMinusReserves * expScale / _totalSupply;.

isPriceOracle is not used

The Comptroller uses a PriceOracle contract to retrieve prices for assets. In the current implementation, the PriceOracle is just an interface over a UniswapAnchorView contract implementation. However, there’s a mismatch between what the PriceOracle interface should implement and what is actually implemented.
Specifically, the isPriceOracle getter is not present in the implementation, making the PriceOracle definition useless.

Moreover, when setting a new oracle, there’s no check on whether the new implementation implements isPriceOracle nor assets price is retrieved to check if the oracle is working.

Consider either refactoring the PriceOracle interface or adjusting the current implementation to match its interface. This improves correctness and consistency but will also avoid unexpected call failures.

Missing or erroneous docstrings and comments

Several docstrings and inline comments throughout the codebase were found to be erroneous and should be fixed. Some examples are:

  • In line 2458 of Unitroller.sol, the concept of “ComptrollerCore” is mentioned but not used nowhere else in the codebase again
  • In line 2460 of Unitroller.sol, the comment appears to be either incomplete or the “if” should be removed from the end of the comment
  • In line 17 of Exponential.sol says “INT” but should say “UINT”
  • line 237 of Comptroller.sol is incorrect, since minter is actually used.
  • In line 13 of PriceOracle.sol used by the Comptroller says that zero means price unavailable. But according to how that function works, this is not true in general. The result can be correctly 0 and be a valid price.
  • In line 795 of CToken.sol should say “to avoid re-entrancy check”
  • In line 291 of CToken.sol, should be changed since the function does not return error codes anymore (expect the NO_ERROR code in case of success)
  • In line 136 of Comptroller.sol, “borrower” should be “supplier or borrower”. Note that, in this case, the parameter name should also be changed for consistency and accuracy.
  • In line 140 of CToken.sol, instead of mentioning that -1 is infinite, it should say that uint256.max is the maximum amount allowed

Additionally, some public and external functions throughout the codebase lack documentation. The lack of documentation hinders a reviewers’ understanding of the code’s intention, an understanding that is essential for correctly assessing both security and correctness. Docstrings improve readability and ease maintenance. They should explicitly explain the purpose or intention of the functions, the scenarios under which they can fail, the roles allowed to call them, the values returned, and the events emitted.

Consider thoroughly documenting all functions (and their parameters) that are part of the contracts’ public API. Functions implementing sensitive functionality, even if not public, should be clearly documented as well. When writing docstrings, consider following the Ethereum Natural Specification Format (NatSpec). Additionally, consider reviewing all existent comments and docstrings to check whether they are complete, descriptive, and accurate, including the examples mentioned above.

Commented out or missing verify calls

The CToken contract includes either commented out or removed lines of code without giving enough context on why those lines have been discarded, thus providing them with little to no value at all. These are:

If any of these function calls will be re-activated in the future by changing their current implementation, this CToken model will need to be updated too.

To avoid compatibility issues and to independently support any Comptroller upgrade, consider adding those function calls back. Alternatively, as the purpose of these lines is unclear and may confuse future developers and external contributors, consider removing them from the codebase. If they are present to provide alternate implementation options, consider extracting them to a separate document where a deeper and more thorough explanation could be included.

Outdated Solidity versions

The version of Solidity used throughout the codebase is outdated, varies between contracts, and is not pinned.

The choice of Solidity version should always be informed by the features each version introduces and that the codebase could benefit from, as well as the list of known bugs associated with each version. Examples of this are:

Consider taking advantage of the latest Solidity version to improve the overall readability and security of the codebase. Regardless of which version of Solidity is used, consider pinning the version consistently throughout the codebase to prevent the introduction of bugs due to incompatible future releases.

Unreachable code

During the cToken refactor, error handling migrated from returning error codes to reverts. However, error codes in the external/public functions have been preserved for compatibility.

In some cases, these error codes are still being checked, but the code after the check is unreachable, increases gas cost, and reduces readability.

In particular, the accrueInterest function always returns NO_ERROR or reverts thus these code blocks are unreachable:

The following if clauses of the CToken contract will never be true since the accrueInterest function is always called at the beginning of a mint and will update the accrualBlockNumber to be the latest block number.

Consider refactoring the code where necessary to improve the overall gas needed to deploy and run operations.

Unused functions and parameters

In the up-to-date version of the protocol, the Comptroller contract has many functions and parameters defined which are deprecated and not used anymore. In particular:

Given the distributed ownership over the Compound protocol, the code base is frequently revisited and maintained by many different community members and contributors. Also, the intrinsic storage layout separation pattern and the upgradeability design have important tradeoff consequences over the general readability and quality of the codebase.

We suggest revisiting the current implementation and starting a community-wide conversation over the long-term codebase development to avoid making the error more confused and less readable.

Unused return value

Line 940 of the Comptroller contract calls the isCToken getter in the cToken contract when listing a new market, but it does check the return value, making this check completely useless.

If the called address has no isCToken getter and the passed contract is not an EOA, the fallback function will be executed. Moreover, if the answer is false, the market should not be listed.

The unwanted outcome is that Markets can be mistakenly added but cannot be removed according to the latest deployed version.

Consider explicitly checking the return value of such calls and eventually revert with any unwanted behaviours or values returned.

Notes & Additional Information

A compromised underlying asset can drain all funds from the protocol

If an underlying asset’s collateral factor in a specific market is greater than zero and the underlying token is upgraded with malicious code, then it might be possible to set an arbitrarily large underlying balance to drain all other markets and drain them using the underlying asset as collateral. There could be other examples where a malicious upgrade of an underlying token can circumvent the entire protocol’s security, and the protocol would be blind to such events.

In the short-term, consider this risk for a new token listing process and add monitoring for compromised or upgraded underlying assets. In the long-term, consider a system design where a specific underlying token can’t affect the protocol as a whole to mitigate this specific risk.

Block velocity assumption

The InterestRateStrategy makes an assumption on the number of blocks per year to evaluate interests rate.

This will not work for many current L2 solutions or future Ethereum upgrades. Even if this doesn’t pose a security issue today, it might be an issue in the future if Compound is deployed on many different chains.

Consider adding this to the backlog tasks when planning to deploy the protocol to a new chain.

Code style inconsistencies

Across the codebase there are several places where code has an inconsistent style. Some examples are:

Consider reviewing the entire codebase to improve consistency and refactor the code where possible.
Take into consideration using the Solidity Style Guide when doing so enforcing a standard coding style with help of linter tools such as Solhint.

Declare uint as uint256

In the audited contracts, there is a general use of unsigned integer variables declared as uint.

To favor explicitness, consider replacing all instances of uint to uint256.

doTransferOut doesn’t ensure success operation

The doTransferOut function performs an ERC20’s transfer operation taking into account that this transfer call may not return anything if the asset is not ERC20 compliant. To manage this, it uses an assembly block that is implemented to check the returndatasize() as follows:

  • When returndatasize() = 0, it is assumed that the asset does not comply with the ERC20 specification, and set the success variable to true.
  • When returndatasize() = 32, it is assumed that the returned value was either true or false, and set the success variable as the returned value.
  • When returndatasize() equals any other value, it is assumed that the asset is “an excessively non-compliant ERC20”, and the function reverts.

The issue lies in the fact that when returndatasize() is zero, It cannot be ensured that the transfer succeeded, since the transfer may have silently failed. If the transfer call silently fails, the user’s CTokens will be burned but no tokens are going to be transferred back to them.

Even though this does not pose a security risk in any current Compound market, it may cause problems in markets to be added in the future.

Consider adding an additional check to the doTransferOut function to evaluate whether the final underlying balance of the CToken is different than its initial underlying balance. Additionally, consider exhaustively reviewing the transfer and transferFrom functions of any future market addition proposal to check that they cannot silently fail.

Implementation used as interface

The Comptroller contract uses the Unitroller contract file in the _become function to call back the Unitroller deployed contract, by using the implementation and not an interface. This implementation slightly differs from the real Unitroller implementation. The same happens with the CToken contract.

Consider using interfaces instead of contract files to avoid confusion, improve readability, and reduce the codebase size.

Lack of indexed parameters in events

Over the code base, there’s inconsistent use of indexed parameters for event definitions. Specifically, some event definitions lack completely indexed parameters. Some examples are:

Consider indexing event parameters to avoid hindering the task of off-chain services searching and filtering for specific events.

Lack of input validation

In the codebase, there are several places where there’s a lack of input validation. Some examples:

  • Admin functions of the Comptroller lack of input validation.
  • The Unitroller doesn’t have input validation when setting pending implementation or admin.
  • When calling _setMarketBorrowCaps an array of cTokens is passed to be configured with a borrow cap. However, there is no check on whether each market isListed before setting a borrow cap.

Consider reviewing the codebase looking for any places where an input validation might be beneficial. This will reduce attack surface, error propagations and improve overall security.

Lack of SPDX License Identifier

All Compound protocol contracts except those developed for the new CToken contract do not have a license identifier.

To avoid legal issues regarding copyright and follow best practices, consider adding the SPDX license identifier as suggested by the Solidity documentation.

Constants not declared explicitly

There are several occurrences of literal values with unexplained meaning in the Compound Protocol’s contracts. Some examples are:

In Comptroller.sol: line 176, line 188, line 738, and line 1088.

In CToken.sol: line 71, line 405, line 521, line 584, line 670, line 752, and line 833

Literal values in the codebase without an explained meaning make the code harder to read, understand and maintain, thus hindering the experience of developers, auditors, and external contributors alike.

For the examples mentioned above in particular, all 0 constants can be replaced with either Error.NO_ERROR or NO_ERROR constants. But in general, developers should define a constant variable for every magic value used (including booleans), giving it a clear and self-explanatory name. Additionally, for complex values, inline comments explaining how they were calculated or why they were chosen are highly recommended. Following Solidity’s style guide, constants should be named in UPPER_CASE_WITH_UNDERSCORES format, and specific public getters should be defined to read each one of them.

cEth and cErc20 underlying balances can be manipulated

In the cErc20 contract, the balance of the underlying asset is calculated by calling the balanceOf function from the EIP20Interface interface. As a result, if any underlying tokens are sent directly to a cErc20 contract, bypassing the mint function, the underlying token balance is incremented without minting the corresponding cTokens to the user.

When a market has already a notable amount of liquidity, sending funds directly to these contracts will not be profitable, and will instead mean each cToken holder can claim more tokens for themselves. However in markets where the amount of underlying in the contract is relatively low, this may not be true as sending untracked tokens to the market can cause a large change to a market’s exchange rate, ultimetly allowing over-minting of cTokens in extreme conditions.

The same is true of cEth, where an actor can bypass the receive function using self destruct, similarly manipulating the underlying amount.

Consider tracking the total underlying balance in a new variable, and increment/decrement it as appropriate when supplies and borrows happen, to avoid adverse actors from being able to bypass predefined functions and manipulating the market’s exchange rate.

Markets can’t be unlisted

The current implementation does not allow for a Markets isListed flag to be turned off. However, markets can become deprecated but will stay in the allMarkets storage variable.

Moreover, the current implementation often performs for loops around the allMarkets array. This altogether means that markets can’t be effectively unlisted nor removed from the array.

If markets are added in the future or if some get deprecated, they will still incur higher gas prices for normal operations since the calculations will run through all the markets array independently.

Consider starting a discussion on how to effectively refactor the code to improve the current design in order to improve general gas cost and optimize storage usage.

Improper imports style

Non-explicit imports are used throughout all protocol contracts. This reduces code readability and could lead to conflicts between names defined locally and the ones imported.

Furthermore, many contracts are defined inside the same Solidity files, making the issue even more significant.

Some examples of multiple contracts and interfaces within the same file are:

  • GovernorBravoEvents, GovernorBravoDelegatorStorage, GovernorBravoDelegateStorageV1, GovernorBravoDelegateStorageV2, TimelockInterface, CompInterface, GovernorAlpha are in GovernorBravoInterfaces.sol
  • CTokenStorage, CTokenInterface, CErc20Storage, CErc20Interface, CDelegationStorage, CDelegatorInterface, CDelegateInterface are in CTokenInterfaces.sol

On the principle that clearer code is better code, consider using named import syntax (import {A, B, C} from "X") to explicitly declare which contracts are being imported and avoid having multiple implementations in the same file.


Accross the codebase there are different typos. Some examples are:

Consider correcting these typos and review the codebase to check for more to improve code readability.

Unclear and inconsistent naming

There are some places in the codebase that might benefit from some naming changes:

  • The UnitrollerAdminStorage.sol not only holds the admin storage variables but also the implementation variables (comptrollerImplementation, pendingComptrollerImplementation), so naming it UnitrollerStorage would be more general and consistent.
  • In general, there is no clear and consistent naming system for functions. Some contracts follow the convention that internal ones are prefixed with “_”, but in other cases this prefix is used for admin functions that can be public, external or, internal. Some examples are:
  • In the Comp token contract the prefix is used for internal functions although not consistently as safe32, safe96, add96, sub96 and getChainId are internal and do not carry the prefix.
  • In the Comptroller, CToken and GovernorBravo contracts, the convention is that the prefix is used for admin functions.

Consider being consistent to improve code readability, clarity, and quality. An inconsistent naming system can confuse users and is prone to error. Moreover, consider reviewing the entire codebase for potential other occurrences.

Unnecessary assembly code

Functions getChainId and getChainIdInternal use assembly code to query for the identifier of the blockchain in which the contract is deployed.

For future implementations, consider using the global variable block.chainid to improve readability, reduce execution gas and optimize bytecode size.

Unnecessary checks

Throughout the codebase, there are some unnecessary checks that can be avoided to save gas and improve readability. For example:

  • The _acceptAdmin function and the _acceptImplementation function in Unitroller.sol validate that the msg.sender is not the zero address (that is, the new admin who calls the function is not the zero address and the address of the new Comptroller implementation is not the zero address), which is an unfeasible scenario, and is anyway validated in both if clauses in the first evaluated condition
  • The borrowAllowed function in Comptroller.sol redundantly checks whether the borrower is part of the accountMembership mapping, since this flag is properly set in the addToMarketInternal function, and if that fails, it will return beforehand.

Wrong or missing visibility in functions and variables

The following functions are defined as public but are never locally used:

Moreover, in the ExponentialNoError contract, all the constants are implicitly using the default visibility.

To clarify intent and favor readability, consider explicitly declaring the visibility of all constants and state variables. Also, consider changing the visibility of the aforementioned functions to external to reduce gas costs.


One critical issue was found and resolved alongside numerous issues of lower severity. Recommendations on how to fix each issue have been provided, along with suggestions to improve overall code quality.

We recommend that the Compound Labs team and Compound community contributors consider addressing our recommendations in future proposal upgrades and protocol versions.