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Mantle V2 Solidity Contracts Audit

Table of Contents


L2 Rollup
From 2024-01-31
To 2024-03-01
Total Issues
29 (12 resolved, 1 partially resolved)
Critical Severity Issues
1 (1 resolved)
High Severity Issues
0 (0 resolved)
Medium Severity Issues
3 (3 resolved)
Low Severity Issues
7 (1 resolved)
Notes & Additional Information
18 (7 resolved, 1 partially resolved)


We audited the mantlenetworkio/mantle-v2 repository at commit e29d360.

In scope were the following files:

├── L1
│   ├── L1CrossDomainMessenger.sol
│   ├── L1ERC721Bridge.sol
│   ├── L1StandardBridge.sol
│   ├── L2OutputOracle.sol
│   ├── OptimismPortal.sol
│   ├── ResourceMetering.sol
│   └── SystemConfig.sol
└── L2
│   ├── BaseFeeVault.sol
│   ├── BVM_ETH.sol
│   ├── CrossDomainOwnable.sol
│   ├── CrossDomainOwnable2.sol
│   ├── CrossDomainOwnable3.sol
│   ├── GasPriceOracle.sol
│   ├── L1Block.sol
│   ├── L1FeeVault.sol
│   ├── L2CrossDomainMessenger.sol
│   ├── L2ERC721Bridge.sol
│   ├── L2StandardBridge.sol
│   ├── L2ToL1MessagePasser.sol
│   └── SequencerFeeVault.sol

In addition, we also performed a limited review of the contracts listed below as they are dependencies of above in-scope contracts. As a result, some low- and note-level issues were raised. However, a full audit of these files was not performed.

 ├── universal
│   ├── ERC721Bridge.sol
│   ├── StandardBridge.sol
│   ├── CrossDomainMessenger.sol
│   ├── OptimismMintableERC20.sol
│   ├── Semver.sol
│   └── FeeVault.sol

Finally, the following files were audited exclusively in terms of differences with the base commit bb0ff70:

 ├── deployment
│   ├── PortalSender.sol
│   ├── SystemDictator.sol
├── legacy
│   └── LegacyERC20MNT.sol
├── libraries
│   ├── Burn.sol
│   ├── Encoding.sol
│   ├── Hashing.sol
│   ├── Predeploys.sol
│   ├── Types.sol

System Overview

Mantle V2 is a layer 2 (L2) scaling solution for Ethereum that uses fraud proofs instead of validity proofs for its security. The protocol aims to provide low transaction fees and high throughput while maintaining full EVM compatibility. Mantle V2 is built on top of Ethereum using the OP Stack and therefore shares many similarities with Optimism. As far as the differences are concerned, the most important one is the native currency used in L2 being changed from ETH to the Mantle Token (MNT). MNT is an ERC-20 token on the Ethereum mainnet becaue of which the code has to be adapted. Prior to going into the details of all the specific changes, it is worth summarizing what the Mantle v2 stack is and how it works. The system is based on two main directories of contracts, namely the L1 and L2 directories.

As the name suggests, the L1 directory will contain contracts that manage the following:

  • ERC-20, ERC-721, MNT, and ETH deposit into the L1 contracts.
  • Event emission for L2 bridging finalization.
  • Additional features to prove and finalize a withdrawal transaction (the inverse action of depositing into L2).
  • Auxiliary contracts like the ResourceMetering contract to handle gas unit measurements according to EIP-1559, the L2OutputOracle contract that hosts finalized state roots of L2 blocks, and the SystemConfig contract which serves merely to retrieve system configurations of different parameters.

On the other hand, the L2 directory will contain contracts that manage the following:

The three main parts of both L1 and L2 are the following:


On L1, ERC-20 assets, MNT tokens, and ETH are managed through the L1StandardBridge contract, while ERC-721 assets are managed through the L1ERC721Bridge contract. On L2, equivalent contracts are found, namely the L2StandardBridge and L2ERC721Bridge contracts.

Both bridges have functions in common to initialize asset transfers to the opposite domain like the bridgeMNT, bridgeERC20, bridgeETH or bridgeERC721 functions, and to finalize bridging from the opposite domain like the finalizeBridgeERC20, finalizeBridgeMNT, finalizeBridgeETH or finalizeBridgeERC721. ERC-20 and ERC-721 assets are locked within the bridge contracts, whereas MNT and ETH are transferred to the L1CrossDomainMessenger / L2CrossDomainMessenger contracts when bridging to the other domain, or are transferred from them when finalizing a bridge to the current domain.


The L1CrossDomainMessenger and L2CrossDomainMessenger contracts are merely intermediaries between bridges and the OptimismPortal / L2toL1MessagePasser. Messengers do not distinguish between assets and the only thing they do is pass arbitrary encoded messages together with MNT or ETH. When bridging over to the other domain, the sendMessage functions are triggered, whereas when finalizing a bridge from another domain, the relayMessage functions are called. The target of any sendMessage call is the OptimismPortal / L2toL1MessagePasser, whereas the target of a relayMessage execution is usually a bridge contract.

Portal and Message Passer

The OptimismPortal (portal) contract is the final point in the L1 execution when depositing assets from L1 to L2, whereas the L2toL1MessagePasser contract is the final point for withdrawing from L2 to L1. These contracts emit events whose parameters are the encoded messages of the assets being transferred. One notable difference between the two is that OptimismPortal hosts the mechanism to prove and finalize any withdrawal transaction from L2-to-L1, while the L2toL1MessagePasser merely passes messages from L2-to-L1. The verification of withdrawal transactions is where L2 state roots are used to ensure that the withdrawal transaction has been effectively triggered on L2 first. The OptimismPortal and the L2toL1MessagePasser contracts are the ones effectively holding MNT and ETH on both domains.

The reason behind this is that one can skip the entire flow of passing from bridges to messengers and target them directly, thereby saving gas. However, it is a less user-friendly flow to follow and is also error-prone. Moreover, users can also only skip the bridges and send arbitrary data through the messengers. Messengers will pass the execution to the portal or to the message passer on L2. The main difference introduced by Mantle v2 is changing the native currency on L2 from ETH to MNT. This means that ETH is converted into an ERC-20 asset on L2, specifically into an instance of an OptimismMintableERC20 token. This comes with some nuances:

  • A deposit transaction transfers ERC-20 MNT into the L1 system, whereas on the L2, it is the native currency. MNT, as the native currency, is minted at the protocol level before the L2 finalization executes, as would be the case for ETH in the original Optimism code.
  • ETH is transferred into the L1 system which is accounted for by an ERC-20 WETH token mint into the L2 system. WETH is first minted and then transferred to the initiator of L2 deposit finalization. The minting process is performed at the protocol level.

When bridging from L2 to L1:

  • The native MNT is collected into the L2 system and burned at a later stage through a contract that self-destructs at construction time, effectively removing the native currency from circulation. The corresponding amount of the ERC-20 Mantle token is then released on the L1 system.
  • The WETH is first burned on L2 and then released on L1 as native currency. In contrast to the minting process, the burning process happens at the contract level.

Since the MNT-to-ETH exchange rate fluctuates, in order to correctly account for transaction fees, a tokenRatio value has been introduced in the GasPriceOracle contract. The tokenRatio represents the value of MNT compared to ETH which enables fee values to be correctly calculated. This token ratio is managed at the client level and is meant to be adjusted by a trusted operator every time the price relation changes.

Mantle v2 introduces many other features which are implemented at the protocol level and are deemed out of scope of the current smart contract list. We recommend taking a look at the following official page for a more in-depth analysis of the new features.

Privileged Roles

There are several privileged actors within the system:

At any moment, it is assumed that all these special actors have been properly configured and that none of their private keys are compromised.

Security Model and Trust Assumptions

Cross-chain messaging and the asset bridging built on top of are integral parts of every L2 solution. However, the correctness of these cross-chain communications depends on the underlying node and client operations. As such, we assume that the emitted data for cross-chain communication is correctly relayed from one layer to the other. Given the increased complexity in differentiating between MNT and ETH (both on L1 and L2), significant amount of logic is handled at the protocol level. This makes both system contracts and clients have a bigger dependent relation compared to the original Optimism code. More precisely, there is the assumption that a deposit transaction will be executed exactly as requested. For a counter-example of how funds can get stuck due to some incorrect node relaying or client executions, please see the Appendix.

Furthermore, the token ratio that establishes a price relation for MNT-to-ETH is assumed to be manipulation-resistant as claimed in the official documentation.


Critical Severity

BVM_ETH and MNT Deposited in Messengers Can Be Stolen

In the L2CrossDomainMessenger contract, the relayMessage function will perform an arbitrary external call to _target. At the same time, the same function is expected to fail in the external call and has logic to handle such a case. If an external call fails, the failedMessages[versionedHash] mapping will be set to true and, at that point, anyone can retry the execution of the transaction.

When transferring ETH from L1 to L2, if the user went through the L1StandardBridge logic, the BVM_ETH will be minted and transferred to the L2CrossDomainMessenger on L2 and the relayMessage execution is then triggered to move those BVM_ETH to their final destination. Similarly, if the user went through the L2StandardBridge contract when transferring MNT from L2 to L1, the OptimismPortal contract will transfer MNT to the L1CrossDomainMessenger and execute the relayMessage function to finalize the MNT withdrawals.

In both cases, the messengers are expected to potentially fail. If that happens, ETH will be sitting in theL2CrossDomainMessenger contract and MNT will be sitting in the L1CrossDomainMessenger contract, waiting for anyone to retry the failed execution. This is where a malicious actor can steal all of the ETH or MNT. The attacker can initiate a depositTransaction through the L1CrossDomainMessenger contract which will be passed to relayMessage with the _target as the BVM_ETH contract and the _data corresponding to an approve call from the L2CrossDomainMessenger to an EOA owned by the attacker.

The approval allows the attacker to steal any BVM_ETH sitting in the L2CrossDomainMessenger coming from a failed relayMessage execution and waiting to be retried. The same attack applies to L1 where anyone can become an allowed spender of MNT stored in L1CrossDomainMessenger and steal those too.

Consider declaring the BVM_ETH address an unsafe target in the _isUnsafeTarget function of L2CrossDomainMessenger and doing the same for the MNT address in the L1CrossDomainMessenger contract. Alternatively consider prohibiting setting the BVM_ETH / MNT address as target when sending cross-chain messages that will trigger one of the messenger. Moreover, consider whether such change can restrict potential use cases that are allowed by the system.

Update: Resolved in pull request #123 at commit e251c1b. No new unit tests have been added.

Medium Severity

Cross Domain Messengers Can Fail in Relaying a Message

The L1CrossDomainMessenger contract extends CrossDomainMessenger and overrides the relayMessage function. One of the characteristics of the original relayMessage function is that the estimation of whether there is enough gas or not to proceed with the external call has a few operations performed in between. The hasMinGas function, responsible for the proper gas check, has clear docstrings that warn against the overhead gas provided. It states that 40000 units of gas are added as extra gas cost to account for a worst-case scenario of the CALL opcode called in the subsequent external call. The worst-case scenario includes:

  • Access to cold storage that accounts for 2600 units of gas.
  • Call to a non-existent target that accounts for 25000 units of gas.
  • A positive msg.value in the call that will increase the cost by 9000 units of gas.

Also, note that the second argument of the hasMinGas function is the sum of the following two variables:

  • RELAY_RESERVED_GAS which is set to 40000 units of gas. This is an estimation of how much gas is needed to continue with the relayMessage execution after the external call. This is unchanged from Optimism code.
  • RELAY_GAS_CHECK_BUFFER which is set to 5000 units of gas and represents an amount that should be used in between the hasMinGas function and the external call. This is also unchanged from Optimism code.

The hasMinGas function contains the following formula:

 [ gasLeft - (40000 + _reservedGas) ] * 63/64 >= _minGas

Here, _reservedGas is 45000 units of gas of which only 5000 are estimated to be a buffer before the external call. Taking into account all of this, between the gas estimation and the external call, there is a total buffer of 5000 plus the remainder of the 40000, removing the worst case scenario of 36600 units of gas, for a total of 8400 units of gas (and not 5700 as mentioned in the docs). After the external call, another 40000 units of gas are reserve to finish with the normal execution.

The L1CrossDomainMessenger override adds some extra instructions in the code: an approve call to the MNT token contract in case the message being relayed contains a movement of MNT tokens, and a second approve to set the allowance back to 0 which is repeated after the external call. Whether the second approval is needed or not depends on whether there might be circumstances in which given approvals are not consumed by the target of the external call.

An approval of an ERC-20 token can span from a few thousand up to 30000 or 40000 units of gas, exceeding the buffer of few thousands units provided by far. Some instances of an OptmismMintableERC20 token might consume even more than 40000 units of gas for every approve call. approve call gas consumption definitely depends on whether values are being set from zero to positive values or the other way around, or from non-zero to non-zero values. Notice that a similar argument can be made for the relayMessage function of the L2CrossDomainMessenger.

In light of the above, consider revisiting the values for RELAY_GAS_CHECK_BUFFER and RELAY_RESERVED_GAS, and deciding whether the second approval is needed to avoid having unexpected gas failures due to extra instructions included from the original Optimism code that came with no changes to those default estimation values. Moreover, given the added logic from Optimism code, gas buffers should be adapted to ensure that enough overhead is added so that the transactions do not fail. It is worth noting that calls to relayMessage that can be engineered to fail can prevent the finalization of deposits and withdrawals, opening the doors for DoS attacks.

Update: Resolved in pull request #114 at commit 67f0904 and at commit 92ebaf9.

Gas Estimation Can Fail in finalizeWithdrawalTransaction

The finalizeWithdrawalTransaction function of the OptimismPortal contract has been slightly changed from the original Optimism's code to accommodate the changes required to bridge MNT, separately from the bridging of other assets. Like many other functions within the contract, the function is supposed to revert whenever an external call fails and the tx.origin is the ESTIMATION_ADDRESS. Conversely, if the external call did not fail, the call should not revert even if the tx.origin is the ESTIMATION_ADDRESS.

As a result of the changes introduced, the original Optimism behavior is not maintained anymore. Now, even if the external call does not fail and the tx.origin is the ESTIMATION_ADDRESS, the finalizeWithdrawalTransaction execution can still fail if the only asset being bridged is ETH. This is because the boolean flagging of whether the MNT transfer was successful or not defaults to false, making the call revert. However, this should not happen if no MNT are being transferred. The correct fix would be to set the l1mntSuccess boolean by default to true so that the same Optimism behavior is maintained, but this can also render the boolean useless as mentioned in issue N01.

Consider making the gas estimation behavior consistent with what has been inherited from Optimism and left unchanged in other parts of the codebase. When doing so, consider the mentioned issue about useless boolean variables being used.

Update: Resolved in pull request #105 at commit 6022c06.

Unnecessary Payable Function Definition

The proposeL2Output function of the L2OutputOracle contract is defined as payable but it does not handle any msg.value. While the function is restricted to be called exclusively by the PROPOSER, if any msg.value is passed, funds can get stuck in the contract as there is no way to pull them out.

Consider whether the proposeL2Output has to be payable and document the reason. Alternatively, consider removing the payable attribute.

Update: Resolved in pull request #138 at commit af0d029.

Low Severity

Assets Might Get Stuck in Contracts

Across the codebase, there are several circumstances in which assets can get locked in the contracts due to external call failures. Two examples are:

  • When bridging ETH from L2 to L1, the finalizeWithdrawalTransaction function of the OptimismPortal is called. This will attempt to call the L1StandardBridge at the finalizeBridgeETH function which performs an external call to the recipient of the ETH. However, if such a call fails, the success returned boolean will be false and the finalizeWithdrawalTransaction will revert exclusively if the tx.origin is the ESTIMATION_ADDRESS, but it will not revert if the caller is a normal user trying to finalize the bridge back to L1. Moreover, the finalizedWithdrawals mapping will be set to true for this specific withdrawal, preventing any future attempt to replay the transaction and make it work. The result is that ETH will be stuck in the OptimismPortal.

  • When bridging an ERC-721 token from L2 to L1, the same finalizeWithdrawalTransaction will be called, but this time the L1ERC721Bridge will be called at the finalizeERC721Bridge function. This function will effectively perform a safeTransferFrom from the L1ERC721Bridge to the recipient of the ERC-721 token. The usage of the safeTransferFrom implies also triggering a _checkOnERC721Received hook which will revert if the recipient is a contract that does not implement the correct interface to receive the token. If the call reverts, the same situation as before will happen since the finalizeWithdrawalTransaciton will not revert and the withdrawal will be marked as finalized. The result here is that the ERC-721 token will be stuck in the bridge.

Consider either documenting such behaviours in the docstrings of the contracts or putting remediations in place.

Note that case in which ETH gets stuck in the OptimismPortal is inherited from the Optimism contracts and Optimism have already taken a position in which they delegate the responsibility of this to the user who should understand the risk. Quoting one of their issues:

One of the quirks of the OptimismPortal is that there is no replaying of transactions. If a transaction fails, it will simply fail, and all ETH associated with it will remain in the OptimismPortal contract. Users have been warned of this and understand the risks, so Optimism takes no responsibility for user error.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

Won't fix; we have already implemented transaction replay at the CrossDomainMessenger contract level.

Unusual Upgradeability Patterns Are Adopted

In the codebase, some contracts are meant to be upgradeable and so may have a __gap variable defined. Upgradeable contracts are meant to be called via proxies, for which reason they usually have an initialize function that is called through the proxy. This function sets the initial variable values of the proxy storage slots. In order to prevent someone from initializing the implementation contract directly, in some circumstances, the initialize function is called within the constructor. However, this consumes unnecessary gas and is sub-optimal. All initializable contracts extend the OpenZeppelin Initializable contract which defines an internal function called _disableInitializers that performs the same task of disabling implementation initializations, but without wasting gas by setting the variables to unnecessary values.

Consider calling the _disableInitializers function instead of calling the initialize function within the constructor.

Moreover, some contracts seem to have misplaced and incorrectly-used __gap variables as is the case for the ERC721Bridge and L1ERC721Bridge contracts. The former has two immutable variables that do not take any slot and the __gap variable is set to have a size of 49 slots despite the canonical value being 50, while the latter has one slot occupied by the deposits mapping. This may be misleading as it might explain the 49 slot size instead of the 50 slot size for the __gap variable. However, the way in which storage layout works in the contract L1ERC721Bridge is ERC721Bridge, Semver definition is to have the ERC721Bridge slots defined first, then the Semver ones, and finally the L1ERC721Bridge as the last one.

Consider reviewing the codebase and always using upgradeability standard patterns in which the __gap variable's size reflects the amount of storage slots occupied by the current contextual contract.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

Not fixing. It will not affect the main logic.

Wrong Value Emitted in Event

The TokenRatioUpdated event is emitted in the GasPriceOracle contract everytime the tokenRatio variable is updated to a new value. Its parameters are the previous and the new value being set. However, the event incorrectly emits the new token ratio twice instead of emitting the previous token ratio followed by the new token ratio.

Consider assigning the previousTokenRatio variable to the current token ratio instead of the used input parameter.

Update: Resolved in pull request #138 at commit 572600a.

Incomplete Docstrings

Throughout the codebase, there are several parts that have a incomplete docstring:

Consider thoroughly documenting all functions/events (and their parameters or return values) that are part of any contract's public API. When writing docstrings, consider following the Ethereum Natural Specification Format (NatSpec).

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

Will fix later. it's not a logic issue.

Floating and Multiple Pragma Directives Are Being Used

Pragma directives should be fixed to clearly identify the Solidity version with which the contracts will be compiled. Throughout the codebase, there are multiple floating pragma directives. The majority of contracts have a fixed version of 0.8.15 but there are some contracts that differ:

Moreover, there are cases in which one contract has a pragma directive which differs from that of its imports:

Consider using a fixed pragma version which is consistent across all contracts.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

No need to fix.

Unsafe ABI Encoding

It is not an uncommon practice to use abi.encodeWithSignature or abi.encodeWithSelector to generate calldata for a low-level call. However, the first option is not typo-safe and the second option is not type-safe. The results in both of these methods being error-prone and thus to be considered unsafe. Within Encoding.sol, there are several occurrences of unsafe ABI encodings:

Consider replacing all the occurrences of unsafe ABI encodings with abi.encodeCall, which checks whether the supplied values actually match the types expected by the called function and also avoids errors caused by typos.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

There is no need to fix this.

Missing Docstrings

Throughout the codebase, there are several parts that do not have docstrings. For instance:

  • The mint function of the BVM_ETH contract is not documented.
  • The variables, events, and modifiers of the GasPriceOracle contract are not documented.
  • The L1_MNT_ADDRESS variable of the L1CrossDomainMessenger contract is missing documentation. The same variable lacks docstrings in the L1StandardBridge and in the L2StandardBridge contracts.
  • The bridgeMNTTo function of the L2StandardBridge contract is not documented.
  • In the depositTransaction function of the OptimismPortal contract it is possible to bridge simultaneously ETH and MNT at the same time. If this is the case the user should not use the normal flow of bridging through L2CrossDomainMessenger and L2StandardBridge since this supports bridging only one asset at time. Consider warning the user about it.

Consider thoroughly documenting all functions (and their parameters) that are part of any contract's public API. Functions implementing sensitive functionality, even if not public, should be clearly documented as well. When writing docstrings, consider following the Ethereum Natural Specification Format (NatSpec).

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

No need to fix.

Notes & Additional Information

Unnecessary Boolean Values

Throughout the codebase, there are instances of boolean values being defined but not being logically useful:

  • The success value of the approve call within the _initiateBridgeMNT function of the L1StandardBridge contract. The Mantle token's approve function either reverts or returns true, there is no case in which its result value is false.
  • The l1mntSuccess variable of the finalizeWithdrawalTransaction function of the OptimismPortal contract is either true or the transfer call reverted. It will never be false.
  • The ethSuccess variable of the relayMessage function of the L2CrossDomainMessenger contract is either true or the approve function reverted. It will never be false whenever its value is evaluated.

Consider refactoring the code to avoid using unnecessary boolean values. When doing so, care should be taken in maintaining the same flow of execution, especially at places where the current unnecessary booleans are being evaluated.

Update: Resolved in pull request #128 at commit d8efd33.

Misleading Docstrings

Several instances of incorrect or misleading docstrings have been identified throughout the codebase:


  • Line 12: the comment above the BVM_ETH definition is outdated and can be misleading


  • Lines 39, 47, 55, 63: "ETH" should be "MNT"


  • Lines 34, 35: "ETH" should be "MNT"
  • The docstrings in lines 19, 21 mention that the gas function "burns" a specific amount of gas. However, the amount of gas is not burnt but consumed


  • Both mntTxValue and ethTxValue share identical documentation, yet they serve different purposes in UserDepositTransaction.
  • In WithdrawalTransaction's struct documentation, the docstring for the non-existent field value can be removed. Additionally, both mntValue and ethValue fields are not documented.

Consider updating the misleading instances of docstrings for improved clarity and readability.

Update: Partially resolved in pull request #129 at commit fd4fc03. The outdated comment in BVM_ETH.sol is still present.

Duplicated Getter Function

The RECIPIENT variable of the SequencerFeeVault contract is declared as public. However, it also has a specific getter defined.

Consider removing the duplicate getter and leaving only one instance to retrieve the value of the RECIPIENT variable from.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

No need to fix.

public Functions Can Be Declared as external

Throughout the codebase, there are multiple instances of contracts that define public functions. However, these functions can be defined as external instead.

To save gas and improve code clarity, consider reviewing the codebase and marking all functions that are not called within the code itself as external.

Update: Resolved in pull request #130 at commit c6f2d81.

Code Style Inconsistency

The ERC721Bridge contract has a specific require statement to make sure that the caller is an EOA and not a contract. However, other contracts have a specific modifier called onlyEOA for the same purpose.

Consider using the onlyEOA modifier consistently across the codebase to improve code readability and quality.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

No need to fix.

Typographical Errors

In the codebase, there are a few instances of docstrings containing typos:

  • In line 32 of the OptimismPortal contract, "whcih" should be "which".
  • In line 72 of the OptimismPortal contract, the first docstring line is missing "If the value" and thus does not logically connect with the second docstring line.

Consider reviewing the entire codebase and addressing typographical errors in order to improve code quality and readability.

Update: Resolved in pull request #131 at commit 53fe7ce.

Variables Naming Does Not Follow Solidity Style Guide

As per the Solidity Style Guide suggestions, private or internal variable identifiers should be prefixed with _. Throughout the codebase, there are multiple instances of variable naming that do not follow these guidelines.

Consider reviewing the codebase and fixing any instances of irregular variable naming, and adopting all the Solidity style guidelines in order to improve the overall code quality and readability.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

No need to fix.

Use of Magic Constants

In L1CrossDomainMessenger, magic constants are being used. In the linked instance, the check can be changed from < 2 to <= MESSAGE_VERSION.

Consider always defining constants with explicit names for better readability and understandability of the codebase.

Update: Resolved in pull request #132 at commit 75e7984. However, the same happens on L2CrossDomainMessenger but it hasn't been fixed there.

Usage of Single Step Ownership Transfer

In the CrossDomainOwnable and GasPriceOracle contracts, ownership is transferred in a single step. This might be pose a risk since setting an incorrect address would mean that the ownership of the contracts is permanently lost, with no method of recovery.

Consider using a two-step ownership transfer process such as OpenZeppelin's Ownable2Step.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

No need to fix.

Lack of Indexed Event Parameters

Throughout the codebase, several events do not have their parameters indexed:

Consider indexing event parameters to improve the ability of off-chain services to search and filter for specific events.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

No need to fix.

Lack of Security Contact

Providing a specific security contact (such as an email or ENS name) within a smart contract significantly simplifies the process for individuals to communicate if they identify a vulnerability in the code. This practice is beneficial as it permits the code owners to dictate the communication channel for vulnerability disclosure, eliminating the risk of miscommunication or failure to report due to a lack of knowledge on how to do so. In addition, if the contract incorporates third-party libraries and a bug surfaces in these, it becomes easier for the maintainers of those libraries to make contact with the appropriate person about the problem and provide mitigation instructions.

Throughout the codebase, there are many instances of contracts not having a security contact.

Consider adding a NatSpec comment containing a security contact above the contract definitions. Using the @custom:security-contact convention is recommended as it has been adopted by the OpenZeppelin Wizard and the ethereum-lists.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

There is no need to fix this.

Unnecessary Cast

Within the LegacyERC20MNT contract, the address(_who) cast is unnecessary.

To improve the overall clarity, intent, and readability of the codebase, consider removing unnecessary casts.

Update: Resolved in pull request #133 at commit 9032ff2.

Unused Code

The hashDepositTransaction function of the Hashing library contract is never used within the codebase. In addition, the following code eventually remains unused as well, since it currently only assists the hashDepositTransaction function:

To improve the overall clarity, intentionality, and readability of the codebase, consider removing any unused code.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

There is no need to fix this.

Addresses of Predeploys Are Not Ordered

The constant values of addresses in the Predeploys library are not ordered incrementally which is prone to errors when new addresses need to be added.

Consider ordering all addresses incrementally.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

There is no need to fix this.

Address Is Being Removed Twice

In the SystemDictator contract, the step3 function is being called to remove deprecated addresses from the AddressManager contract. However, the BVM_CanonicalTransactionChain address is being removed twice, first on line 293 and then on line 300.

Consider only removing the deprecated address of BVM_CanonicalTransactionChain once.

Update: Resolved in pull request #135 at commit 4ed9335.

Predeployed Contracts Missing Custom Documentation Tag

Throughout the codebase, predeployed contracts listed in the Predeploys library include the custom tag @custom:predeploy in each contract's NatSpec documentation. However, the following contracts were found missing the custom @custom:predeploy tag: - ProxyAdmin - OptimismMintableERC721Factory - L2ERC721Bridge - BVM_ETH

To improve code clarity, consider adding the @custom:predeploy tag with the appropriate address to each contract's NatSpec documentation.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

There is no need to fix this.

Unused Import

The L1StandardBridge.sol contract imports L1CrossDomainMessenger but does not use it.

Consider removing any unused imports to improve the overall clarity and readability of the codebase.

Update: Resolved in pull request #136 at commit 2002a90.

Duplicate Event Emission

The OwnershipTransferred event of the CrossDomainOwnable3 contract is already emitted inside the internal _transferOwnership function.

Consider removing the duplicate event.

Update: Acknowledged, not resolved. The Mantle team stated:

No need to fix.



The audit yielded one critical and some medium-severity issues. While the code inherited from Optimism was well documented, the new code needs some documentation fixes as suggested in the reported issues. Given the issues raised, the test suite could be improved around the changes introduced to the Mantle codebase. As such, we strongly recommend that the Mantle team implements more extensive QA and testing before going live to prevent potentially undiscovered vulnerabilities from being exploited. When doing so, it should be ensured that a high branch coverage is achieved and that comprehensive end-to-end tests are performed. The Mantle team was very responsive in resolving doubts and answering questions during the course of the audit. The official documentation was also quite helpful in getting the right context to understand the changes introduced.

Update: The team resolved the higher severity issues and some of the issues lower in severity. Many issues have been not addressed but acknowledged. Moreover, even if the changes introduced have been properly reviewed in addressing the issues found, there is no addition of proper unit tests around those. We recommend the Mantle team to improve the overall test suite in light of the new changes introduced.

Appendix - Locked Funds Due to Failed Deposit Transaction Exploration

The code has been adapted to support changing ETH from the native token to an ERC-20 token on L2, as well as to change MNT from an ERC-20 token to the native token. When bridging from L1 to L2, the last L1 execution step is the depositTransaction function of the OptimismPortal. This function emits an event that is then listened to at the protocol level and processed. Then, the first L2 execution step is the relayMessage function of the L2CrossDomainMessenger. The L2 execution should carry over the parameters emitted in the L1 event into the L2 execution.

The details of the execution are as follows:

1) The native L1 ETH ethValue amount is locked into the OptimismPortal contract once the depositTransaction execution finishes. 2) At the protocol level, the ethValue amount emitted in the event is minted in the form of ERC-20 WETH to the from parameter emitted in the TransactionDeposited event. 3) A snapshot is taken. 4) The amount ethTxValue is then transferred to the to of the emitted L1 event. 5) The L2 relayMessage function is now executed.

The reason for this flow resides in two main considerations:

  • The normal user execution flow to bridge ETH from L1 to L2 would require the user to first trigger the _initiateBridgeETH function on the L1StandardBridge. This would call the sendMessage function of the L1CrossDomainMessenger contract which will then call the depositTransaction function of the OptimismPortal. When doing so, the from parameter emitted in the event is the aliased address of the L1CrossDomainMessenger while the to is the L2CrossDomainMessenger.
  • One can skip this entire flow and directly call the OptimismPortal passing the correct parameters to execute the same exact operation. However, this can be done by directly triggering the depositTransaction from an externally owned account or through a user-controlled intermediary contract. If the case is the latter, the from parameter this time would be the aliased address of the user-controlled contract.

Now suppose that we are in this latest scenario and step 5 fails to execute. At the protocol level, the snapshot taken in step 3 is restored. In this hypothetical scenario, the from would have some WETH minted, but those would not have been transferred to L2CrossDomainMessenger. Now, thanks to this pattern, the user can trigger a transaction once again through its controlled contract using this time ethValue == msg.value == 0 and ethTxValue the same value as before. This time, WETH will not be minted, but the same amount as before would be transferred from where they are stuck (the aliased address of the user-controlled address, which has no private key to unstuck the funds) to the original recipient L2CrossDomainMessenger, effectively un-stucking the funds.

All of this seems to solve an important issue. However, it also introduces an edge case: if the depositTransaction is executed from the L1CrossDomainMessenger and the relayMessage execution fails, the funds would then get stuck at the aliased address of L1CrossDomainMessener since there is no way for it to call the depositTransaction again with different values for ethValue and ethTxValue. However, such a scenario is extremely unlikely and can happen only in a few edge-case situations. The relayMessage function can revert if:

1) There is not enough gas to finish execution correctly at any step (even before the external call or before the minimum gas check). 2) Version of the message used is >= 2. 3) When msg.value != _mntValue. 4) If gasleft() - RELAY_RESERVED_GAS underflows.

Even if none of the above situations should occur, the possibility of introducing bugs with future developments might break this assumption. The aim of this write-up is just to showcase the impact of the correctness assumption of node and client being broken. As such, we strongly recommend thoroughly testing the cross-chain features end-to-end. On the other hand, if any of the above should happen, funds would get stuck and the only way to recover funds is to either upgrade the contracts or fix the issue at the protocol level. Two possible solutions might be:

  • Introduce a special restricted-access function in the L1CrossDomainMessenger contract to call the depositTransaction with custom parameters. This way, a call can be replicated with msg.value == 0 and ethTxValue != 0 and unstuck funds.
  • Introduce a mechanism at the protocol level that calls depositTransaction with msg.sender == L1CrossDomainMessenger & tx.origin != L1CrossDomainMessenger with custom parameters as above. This would achieve the same result.

If no remediation is ultimately applied, consider documenting such a scenario, describing the potential risks involved.